Up until recently, I had taken for granted the conflation of Ingui and Freyr. However, due to the important scholarship from Anglo-Saxon Heathens, I feel it necessary to explore references to Freyr and Ingui, explicitly the potential for distinction between Norse and Anglo-Saxon sources. This evidence list represents the best of my ability in this effort and will most likely be an ongoing study.
Gisli’s Saga (c. 1250 CE)
“there was to be a sacrifice to Frey” during “a feast at the end of autumn to celebrate the coming of Winter Nights.”
“when a chieftain named Þorgrímr Freysgoði died and was buried in a howe, a strange thing happened: no snow ever lodged on the south side of the howe, nor did it freeze.” (Reaves 11 citing Gisli’s Saga).
Gylfaginning | Prose Edda (c. 1220 CE)
“Njördr in Nóatún begot afterward two children: the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned of the Æsir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs also the prosperity of men” (Gylfaginning 24, Brodeur tr.)
“For this reason Frey was without a weapon when he fought with Beli, killing him with a stag’s horn” (Gylfaginning 37, Byock tr.)
Grimnismal | Codex Regius (c.1270 CE)
“Alfheim the gods to Frey
gave in days of yore
for a tooth-gift.” (Grimnsimal 5, Thorpe tr.)
“Ivaldi’s sons in bygone days
went to create Skidbladnir,
the best of ships, for shining Freyr,
Njörd’s beneficient son.” (Grimnismal 43, Larrington tr.)
Hervarar Saga og Heiðreks (c. 1200 CE)
describes the practice of Sonarblót:
“King Heithrek worshipped Freyr, and he used to give Freyr the biggest boar he could find. They regarded it as so sacred that in all important cases they used to take the oath on its bristles. It was the custom to sacrifice the boar at the ‘sacrifice of the herd.’ On Yule eve, the ‘boar of the herd’ was led into the hall before the king. Then men laid their hands on his bristles and made solemn vows.” (ch. 10, Chadwick tr. as cited by Reaves 15)
Husdrapa (c. 985 CE)
“The battle-bold Freyr rideth
First on the golden-bristled
Barrow-boar to the bale-fire
Of Baldr, and leads the people.” (Hudraspa 7, Brodeur tr.)
Lokasenna | Codex Regius (c.1270 CE)
“Frey is best
of all the exalted gods
in the Æsir´s courts:
no maid he makes to weep,
no wife of man,
and from bonds looses all.” (Lokasenna 37, Thorpe tr.)
Reaves citing Ögmundar þáttr dytt (c. 1330 CE)
“The notion that Freyr’s idols possessed procreative power is emphasized in a 14th century Icelandic story found in the Flateyjarbók. Ögmundar þáttr dytts ok Gunnars helmings tells the tale of a young Norwegian named Gunnar, falsely accused of murder, who flees to Sweden where he encounters a young woman said to be the wife of the god Freyr. He joins the woman, probably a priestess, as she rides through the countryside in a wagon near the end of the year accompanied by a wooden idol representing the god. Caught in a snowstorm, Gunnar enters the wagon offending the god and a struggle ensues. Calling on the Christian god for support, Gunnar displaces the idol, causing Freyr to flee. Later, when the priestess turns up pregnant with Gunnar’s child, the people regard this as a sign of the god’s potency.” (Reaves 9)
Skaldskaparmal | Prose Edda (c. 1220 CE)
“It was a boar with bristles of gold […] To Frey [Brokk] gave the boar, remarking that night or day it could race across the sky and over sea better than any other mount. Furthermore, night would never be so murky nor the worlds of darkness so shadowy that the boar would not provide light wherever it went, so bright was the shining of its bristles.” (Skaldskaparmal 35, Byock tr.)
“the Aesir took their places on the thrones of fate. Odin, Thor, and Frey were to be the judges, thus settling the matter.” (Skaldskaparmal 35, Byock tr.)
“[Frey should be referred to] by calling him the son of Njord, the brother of Freyja, god of the Vanir, the descendant of the Vanir, and one of the Vanir, the god of a good year, and the giver of wealth… He is called the foe of Beli… and the possessor of the boat Skidbladnir and the boar Gullinbursti” (“Kennings for the Gods,” Russell Poole tr. cited by Byock tr.)
Skirnismal | Codex Regius (c.1270 CE)
[Freyr speaking to Skirnir]
“The horse will I give thee | that goes through the dark
And magic flickering flames,
And the sword as well | that will fight of itself
If a worthy hero wields it.” (Skirnismal 9, Bellows tr.)
Voluspa (c. 800-1100 CE) | Codex Regius (c.1270 CE)
“Then is fulfilled Hlin’s
when Óðinn goes
to fight with the wolf,
and Beli’s slayer [Freyr],
bright, against Surtr.
Then shall Frigg’s
sweet friend fall” (Voluspa 53, Dronke tr.)
Ynglinga saga | Prose Edda (c. 1220 CE)
“Odin placed Njord and Frey as priests of the sacrifices, and they became Diar of the Asaland people. Njord’s daughter Freya was priestess of the sacrifices, and first taught the Asaland people the magic art, as it was in use and fashion among the Vanaland people. While Njord was with the Vanaland people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was allowed by their law; and their children were Frey and Freya. But among the Asaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with such near relations.” (Ynglinga 4, Laing tr.)
“Frey took the kingdom after Njord, and was called drot by the Swedes, and they paid taxes to him. He was, like his father, fortunate in friends and in good seasons. Frey built a great temple at Upsal, made it his chief seat, and gave it all his taxes, his land, and goods. Then began the Upsal domains, which have remained ever since. Then began in his days the Frode- peace; and then there were good seasons, in all the land, which the Swedes ascribed to Frey, so that he was more worshipped than the other gods, as the people became much richer in his days by reason of the peace and good seasons. His wife was called Gerd, daughter of Gymis, and their son was called Fjolne. Frey was called by another name, Yngve; and this name Yngve was considered long after in his race as a name of honour, so that his descendants have since been called Ynglinger. Frey fell into a sickness; and as his illness took the upper hand, his men took the plan of letting few approach him. In the meantime they raised a great mound, in which they placed a door with three holes in it. Now when Frey died they bore him secretly into the mound, but told the Swedes he was alive; and they kept watch over him for three years. They brought all the taxes into the mound, and through the one hole they put in the gold, through the other the silver, and through the third the copper money that was paid. Peace and good seasons continued.” (Ynglinga 11, Laing tr.)
“When it became known to the Swedes that Frey was dead, and yet peace and good seasons continued, they believed that it must be so as long as Frey remained in Sweden; and therefore they would not burn his remains, but called him the god of this world, and afterwards offered continually blood-sacrifices to him, principally for peace and good seasons.” (Ynglinga 13, Laing tr.)
Saxo Grammaticus’s Gesta Danorum (c. 1185 CE)
Saxo was “disgusted by the effeminate gestures [..] and by the unmanly clatter of bells” performed by the “wives of Freyr” (Book 6, Elton tr.)
Beowulf (c. 700-1000 CE)
“Then the Danish prince, descendent of Ing”1 (Beowulf ll.1042, Heaney tr.)
Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem (c. 700-800 CE)
“Ing was first seen by men among the East-Danes,till, followed by his chariot,
he departed eastwards over the waves.
So the Heardingas named the hero.” (Rune Poem, Dickins tr.)
Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England (731 CE)
“it was not lawful before for the high priest either to carry arms, or to ride on anything but a mare”2 (ch.13)
1. The Old English word is Ingwina, usually translated as “friend of Ing [Ingui]”
2. This is a reference to Coifi, high priest of Northumbria. The taboos described by Bede might reflect those of Ingui.
Bede, and A.M Sellars, ed. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the England. 1907. London: George Bell and Sons. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Web.
Bellows, Henry A, trans. The Poetic Edda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1936. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Web.
Chadwick, Nora Kershaw. “The Saga of Hervör and Heithrek.” Stories and Ballads of the Far Past. Cambridge University Press, 1921. Germanic Mythology. Web.
Dickins, Bruce. Runic and Heroic Poems of the old Teutonic Peoples. Cambridge University Press, 1915. Arild Hauge. Web.
Dronke, Ursula, trans. “Voluspa 53.” The Poetic Edda. Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press, 1969. Germanic Mythology. Web.
Grammaticus, Saxo and Oliver Elton, trans. The First Nine Books of the Danish history of Saxo Grammaticus, 1894. American Library Association Online Archive.
Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation, 2000. Print.
Kvilhaug, Maria. “The Old Norse Halloween or Day of the Dead: Alfablót (Sacrifice to the Elves).” Freyia Völundarhúsins. WordPress. Web.
Larrington, Carolyne, trans. “Grimnismal 43.” The Poetic Edda. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Germanic Mythology. Web
Reaves, William P. “The Cult of Freyr and Freyja.” 2008. Germanic Mythology. Web
Regal, Martin S., trans. “Gisli Sursson’s Saga.” The Complete Sage of Icelanders: Including 49 Tales, vol. 2, edited by Viðar Hreinsson et.al., 1-48. Reykjavík: Leifur Eiríksson Publishing, 1997. Google Books. Web.
Sturlson, Snorri, and Samuel Laing, trans. “The Ynglinga Saga.” Heimskringla, or, The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Web.
Sturlson, Snorri, and Jesse L. Byock, trans. The Prose Edda: Norse Mythology. London: Penguin, 2005. Print.
Sturlson, Snorri, and Russel Poole, trans. “Kennings for the Gods.” The Prose Edda: Norse Mythology, edited by Jesse L. Byock. London: Penguin, 2005. Print.
Sundqvist, Olof. “On Freyr—the ‘Lord’ or ‘the Fertile One’? Some Comments on the Discussion of Etymology from the Historian of Religions’ Point of View.“ Onoma (48), 2013. Academia. Web.
Thorpe, Benjamin, trans. The Saemundar Edda. London: Trübner & Co, 1866. Germanic Mythology. Web.